Country Codes

Country codes consist of two letters (e.g. GB) indicating the country or organisation where the patent application was filed or granted.


AL Albania

AP African Regional Industrial Property Organization

AR Argentina

AT Austria

AU Australia

BA Bosnia and Herzegovina

BE Belgium

BG Bulgaria

BR Brazil

CA Canada

CH Switzerland

CL Chile

CN China

CO Colombia

CR Costa Rica

CS Czechoslovakia (up to 1993)

CU Cuba

CY Cyprus

CZ Czech Republic

DD German Democratic Republic

DE Germany

DK Denmark

DZ Algeria

EA Eurasian Patent Organization

EC Ecuador

EE Estonia

EG Egypt

EP European Patent Office

ES Spain

FI Finland

FR France

GB United Kingdom

GC Gulf Cooperation Council

GE Georgia

GR Greece

GT Guatemala

HK Hong Kong (S.A.R.)

HR Croatia

HU Hungary

ID Indonesia

IE Ireland

IL Israel

IN India

IS Iceland

IT Italy

JP Japan

KE Kenya

KR Korea (South)

LI Liechtenstein

LT Lithuania

LU Luxembourg

LV Latvia

MA Morocco

MC Monaco

MD Republic of Moldova

ME Montenegro

MK Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

MN Mongolia

MT Malta

MW Malawi

MX Mexico

MY Malaysia

NC New Caledonia

NI Nicaragua

NL Netherlands

NO Norway

NZ New Zealand

OA African Intellectual Property Organization

PA Panama

PE Peru

PH Philippines

PL Poland

PT Portugal

RO Romania

RS Serbia

RU Russian Federation

SE Sweden

SG Singapore

SI Slovenia

SK Slovakia

SM San Marino

SU Soviet Union (USSR)

SV El Salvador



TTTrinidad and Tobago



USUnited States of America


VNViet Nam

WOWorld Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

YUYugoslavia/Serbia and Montenegro

ZASouth Africa




Kind Codes

Kind codes include a letter, and in many cases a number, used to distinguish the kind of patent document (e.g., publication of an application for a utility patent (patent application publication), patent, plant patent application publication, plant patent, or design patent) and the level of publication (e.g., first publication, second publication, or corrected publication).

WIPO ST.16 Kind Codes                     Kind of document                                                                   

A1                                                            Patent Application Publication                       

A2                                                            Patent Application Publication (Republication)             

A9                                                            Patent Application Publication (Corrected Publication)       

B1                                                            Patent                                                                                       

B2                                                            Patent                                       

C1, C2, C3                                              Reexamination Certificate  

E                                                              Reissue Patent

H                                                             Statutory Invention Registration (SIR)

P1                                                            Plant Patent Application Publication

P2                                                            Plant Patent

P3                                                            Plant Patent

P4                                                            Plant Patent Application Publication (Republication)

P9                                                            Plant Patent Application Publication (Corrected Publication)

S                                                              Design Patent​

The following links will provide guidelines for a patent drawing for the different jurisdictions





Industrial Design Office Practices

6. Examination

6.1 Industrial design subject matter


Industrial design means:

Features of shape, configuration, pattern, ornament, or any combination of these features that are applied to a finished article.


This includes:

  • designs applied to articles that are sold separately, even if they are not normally used on their own. For example, a zipper is sold as a separate article, but in normal use, it is part of another article such as a piece of clothing or a handbag;

  • designs applied to combined articles consisting of two or more components that come apart and are separate articles in themselves, provided that such components combine to make a finished article, e.g., tray with lid;

  • electronic icons embodied in a finished article (Note: a new practice notice has been published for animated electronic icons. Please refer to the practice notice entitled, “Application for Protection of Computer-Generated Animated Designs”, January 16, 2017);

  • designs applied to "sets" as defined in section 2 of the Industrial Design Act;

  • designs applied to finished articles assembled from a kit, as per the definition of "kit" in section 2 of the Industrial Design Act;

  • designs applied to portable buildings and structures—preformed, portable and delivered to purchasers as finished articles or in sections to be put together by a simple operation such as bolting; and

  • designs applied to articles of indefinite length such as fabric and wallpaper.


Industrial design does NOT apply to:

  • design features in isolation—protection can only be obtained for design features that have been applied to a particular finished article;

  • the functional characteristics of an article, e.g., what the article does and how;

  • methods or principles of construction, e.g., what the article is made of and how it is assembled;

  • ideas or general concepts—only a specific design applied to a particular finished article can be protected;

  • the colour of an article (Note: the Office has changed its interpretation with regard to the registrability of colour. Please refer to the practice entitled “Update: Colour as a registrable feature of an industrial design”, May 2, 2017);

  • features of an article that do not have a fixed appearance, e.g., holograms; and

  • buildings and structures to be constructed on site (not including structures that are preformed, portable and delivered to purchasers as finished articles, or in sections to be put together by a simple operation such as bolting).


6.4.5 Description identifying the features that constitute the design


Design applied to the entirety or a portion of the article

The description must indicate whether the design relates to the appearance of the entire article or to the appearance of a portion of the article. Further, if the design relates only to a portion, that portion must be clearly identified.


Which visual features

The description must make clear which of the visual features shown in the drawings comprise the design. For example, does the design consist of all of the visual features of the article or only certain specific features, e.g., only shape.

Any feature of the design referred to in the description must be visible in the drawings or photographs.

An application may include a more detailed description provided that the additional detail accurately describes design features visible in the drawings or photographs.


Highlighting important features

It is acceptable to highlight a particular feature that is considered to be an important feature of the design.


Words or letters

When letters or words are included in the drawings or photographs as features of the design, any description of those features must relate to their visual appearance. Words and letters per se are not registrable subject matter of industrial design.



An application must relate to one design or to designs that constitute variants. To be accepted as variants, the designs must be very similar and possess the described features without substantial variation.



It should be clear in the description when the design applies to a set and the description should refer only to the design features common among all pieces of the set, e.g., the identical design or variants applied to each piece of the set. It is acceptable to indicate the location of these features on each piece of the set.


Figure reference

It is recommended that a figure reference be inserted at the end of the description when more than one drawing or photograph has been provided. The figure references should be restricted to describing the views seen in the drawings, i.e., perspective, front, back, top, bottom, left side, right side.

When an article is shown in an opened and closed position or in an extended and retracted position, the figure references should also make that clear, e.g., Figure l is a bottom view of the kettle and Figure 2 is a top view of the kettle showing the kettle with the lid in open position.


6.5 Drawings or photographs


6.5.1 General requirements


Show entire article

The drawings/photographs must show the entire finished article to which the design is applied, even though the design may relate to the appearance of only a portion of the article.


Show fully-assembled article

Only the fully assembled view of the finished article will be accepted. Parts that are not visible in the completely assembled article are not registrable and should not be shown or labelled.

Show article in isolation

The article must be shown in isolation. The only subject matter that will be accepted aside from the illustration of the article are figure numbers, the names of the views, and the applicant's name/signature. Such written matter must not hinder the clear disclosure of the article (see also section below entitled "One view showing environment").

Clearly disclose design features

The drawings/photographs must clearly disclose all the design features identified and described in the description portion of the application.

It is acceptable to submit photocopies or scanned images if the article and the features of the design are clearly shown.


Drawings and photographs must be clear and legible and must be presented so that the Office can directly reproduce them in black and white.


Photographs should be numbered in sequence. It is suggested that the numbers be written, stamped or typed on the back of the photograph with permanent ink.


The drawings/photographs must include a sufficient number of views to show the features of the design clearly and accurately.

Two-dimensional, plan and elevation views are accepted, and it is recommended that a perspective view of the design be included since it discloses the article in three dimensions.

Views of the article in open and closed, or extended and retracted positions, may be included when it is necessary to reveal design features visible when the article is used in those positions.

Flexible articles

Articles such as clothing and cushions that are flexible may be shown flat or as they appear in use, provided that the features of the design are shown clearly and accurately.


All pieces of the set must be shown in the drawings or photographs.


It is preferable to group views of each variant together (i.e., consecutively). A sufficient number of views are required for each variant to clearly and accurately disclose the design features.


Annex B: Sample Drawings


CINPA Patent Drawing Rules ​​


Rules for the Implementation of the Patent Law of the People's Republic of China


Article 18 

  • The drawings of an invention or utility model shall be numbered and arranged in numerical order consecutively as “Figure 1, Figure 2, …”.

  • Reference signs not mentioned in the text of the description of the invention or utility model shall not appear in the drawings, and reference signs not included in the drawings shall not be referred to in the text of the description. Reference signs for the same composite part shall be used consistently throughout the application document.

  • The drawings shall not contain any other explanatory notes, except for words which are indispensable.

Article 27 

  • Where an applicant seeks the protection of colors, drawings or photographs in color shall be submitted.

  • The applicant shall, in respect of the subject matter of the product incorporating the design which is in need of protection, submit the relevant drawings or photographs.

Article 52 

  • When any amendment is made to the description or the claims in an application for a patent for invention or utility model, a replacement sheet in prescribed form shall be submitted, unless the amendment concerns only the alteration, insertion or deletion of a few words. Where an amendment to the drawings or photographs of an application for a patent for design is made, a replacement sheet shall be submitted as prescribed.

Article 104 (Foreign Filing)

  • (5) where an international application is filed in a foreign language, submitting the Chinese translation of the abstract and submitting a copy of the drawings and a copy of the drawing of the abstract if there are drawings and the drawing of the abstract, in which the text matter of the drawings, if any, shall be replaced by the corresponding text matter in Chinese; where the international application is filed in Chinese, submitting a copy of the abstract and a copy of the drawing of the abstract which are contained in the documents of the international publication;

Article 121 

  • Various kinds of application documents shall be typed or printed, and all the characters shall be in black ink, neat and clear, and free from any alterations. The drawings shall be made in black ink with the aid of drafting instruments, and the lines shall be uniformly thick and well defined, and free from any alterations.

  • The request, description, claims, drawings and abstract shall be numbered separately in Arabic numerals and arranged in numerical order.

  • The written language of an application shall run from left to right. Only one side of each sheet shall be used.

JPO Industrial Design Rules ​​


In some countries, it is possible to show a design with only one drawing. In Japan, however, it is standard to show a design based on a set of orthographic drawings that include a front view, rear view, left-side view, right-side view, top-view, and bottom-view. All of the drawings must be the same scale. However, it is also possible to show a design by using isometric drawings or oblique drawings.

In addition, instead of submitting a set of drawings, it is also possible to submit photographs, models or specimens that show the design.



Singapore Patent Filing Guidlines ​​


21.—(1)  Drawings forming part of an application for a patent made under section 25 shall be on sheets the size of which shall be A4 (29.7 cm x 21 cm).

(2)  The sheets shall not contain frames round the usable or used surface.

(3)  The minimum margins shall be as follows:

(a)top: 2.5 cm;

(b)left side: 2.5 cm;

(c)right side: 1.5 cm; and

(d)bottom: 1.0 cm.

(4)  The margins, when submitted, must be completely blank.

(5)  Drawings shall be executed as follows:

(a)without colouring in durable, black, sufficiently dense and dark, uniformly thick and well-defined lines and strokes to permit satisfactory reproduction;

(b)cross-sections shall be indicated by oblique hatching which should not impede the clear reading of the reference signs and leading lines;

(c)the scale of the drawings and the distinctiveness of their graphical execution shall be such that a photographic reproduction with a linear reduction in size to two-thirds would enable all details to be distinguished without difficulty. If, as an exception, the scale is given on a drawing, it shall be represented graphically;

(d)all numbers, letters and reference lines, appearing on the drawings, shall be simple and clear and brackets, circles and inverted commas shall not be used in association with numbers and letters;

(e)each element of each figure shall be in proper proportion to each of the other elements in the figure, except where the use of a different proportion is indispensable for the clarity of the figure;

(f)the height of the numbers and letters shall not be less than 0.32 cm and for the lettering of drawings, the Latin and, where customary, the Greek alphabets shall be used;

(g)the same sheet of drawings may contain several figures; where figures drawn on 2 or more sheets are intended to form one whole figure, the figures on the several sheets shall be so arranged that the whole figure can be assembled without concealing any part of the partial figures; and the different figures shall be arranged without wasting space, clearly separated from one another and shall be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals, independently of the numbering of the sheets;

(h)reference signs not mentioned in the description or claims shall not appear in the drawings, and vice versa; and the same features, when denoted by reference signs, shall throughout the application, be denoted by the same signs;

(i)the drawings shall not contain textual matter, except, when required for the understanding of the drawings, a single word or words such as “water”, “steam”, “open”, “closed”, “section on AA”, and in the case of electric circuits and block schematic or flow sheet diagrams, a few short catchwords; and

(j)the sheets of drawings shall be numbered in accordance with rule 23(13) and (14).

(6)  Flow sheets and diagrams shall be considered drawings for the purposes of these Rules.

(7)  Paragraphs (1) to (4) and (5)(f), (g) and (j) shall not apply to any drawing to be filed with the Registry using the electronic online system, and that drawing shall instead comply with practice directions issued by the Registrar in place of the requirements of those paragraphs.

  • Size and presentation of documents

23.—(1)  Subject to paragraph (29), this rule shall apply to all documents (including drawings) making up an application for a patent, including any replacement thereof, to be filed with the Registry by any means.

(1A)  All documents referred to in paragraph (1) shall be in English.

(2)  Unless otherwise provided, the specification (including any drawing therein), abstract and any replacement sheet thereof shall be filed singly.

(3)  All documents referred to in paragraph (1) shall be so presented as to permit direct reproduction by photography, electrostatic or electronic processes, scanning, photo offset and microfilming, in an unlimited number of copies.

(4)  All sheets must be free from cracks, creases and folds.

(5)  Only one side of the sheet shall be used.

(6)  All documents referred to in paragraph (1) shall be in A4 paper size (29.7 cm x 21 cm) and shall be on pliable, strong, white, smooth, matt and durable paper.

(7)  Each sheet (other than drawings) shall be used with its short sides at the top and bottom (upright position).

(8)  The request for the grant of a patent, the description, claims, drawings and abstract shall each commence on a new sheet.

(9)  The sheets shall be so connected that they can be easily turned when consulted, and easily separated and joined again if they have been separated.

(10)  The minimum margins of the sheets containing the description, the claims and the abstract shall be as follows:

(a)top: 2.0 cm;

(b)left side: 2.5 cm;

(c)right side: 2.0 cm; and

(d)bottom: 2.0 cm.

(11)  The margins of the documents making up the application, when filed, and of any replacement documents, must be completely blank.

(12)  In the application, except in the drawings —

(a)all sheets in the request shall, when filed, be numbered consecutively; and

(b)all other sheets shall, when filed, be numbered consecutively as a separate series,

and all such numbering shall be in Arabic numerals placed at the top or bottom of the sheet, in the middle, but not in the top or bottom margin.

(13)  All sheets of drawings contained in the application shall be numbered consecutively as a separate series.

(14)  Such numbering shall be in Arabic numerals placed at the top or bottom of the sheet, in the middle, but not in the top or bottom margin.

(15)  Every document (other than drawings) referred to in paragraph (1) shall be typed or printed in a dark, indelible colour in at least 1½ line spacing and in characters of which the capital letters are not less than 0.21 cm high except that graphic symbols and characters and chemical and mathematical formulae may be written or drawn, in a dark indelible colour.

(16)  The request for the grant of a patent, the description, claims and abstract shall not contain drawings.

(17)  The description, claims and abstract may contain chemical or mathematical formulae.

(18)  The description and the abstract may contain tables.

(19)  The claims may contain tables only if their subject-matter makes the use of tables desirable.

(20)  In all documents referred to in paragraph (1), units of weights and measures shall be expressed in terms of the metric system.

(21)  If a different system is used, units of weights and measures shall also be expressed in terms of the metric system.

(22)  Temperatures shall be expressed in degrees Celsius.

(23)  For the other physical values, the units recognised in international practice shall be used, for mathematical formulae the symbols in general use, and for chemical formulae the symbols, atomic weights and molecular formulae in general use shall be employed.

(24)  In general, use should be made of technical terms, signs and symbols generally accepted in the field in question.

(25)  If a formula or symbol is used in the specification, a copy thereof, prepared in the same manner as drawings, shall be furnished if the Registrar so directs.

(26)  The terminology and the signs shall be consistent throughout the application.

(27)  All documents referred to in paragraph (1) shall be reasonably free from deletions and other alterations, over-writings and interlineations and shall, in any event, be legible.

(28)  Non-compliance with this rule may be authorised by the Registrar if the authenticity of the content is not in question and the requirements for good reproduction are not in jeopardy.

(29)  Paragraphs (2) and (4) to (15) shall not apply to any document to be filed with the Registry using the electronic online system, and that document shall instead comply with practice directions issued by the Registrar in place of the requirements of those paragraphs.